4 paradigms in teacher education:

– Zeichner (1983) identifies four paradigms in teacher education: behaviouristic, personalistic, traditional craft, enquiry orientation ( ‘Alternative Paradigms of Teacher Education’, Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 34, pp. 3–9.)
– It is highly likely that an ITE course will combine aspects of the four but may have a tendency towards one paradigm.

– Taylor’s (2008) research also supports Zeichner’s views. Taylor’s four ways of describing ITE learning: Cascading expertise, enabling student’s individual growth as teacher, developing student teaching, students as teachers and learners.


‘Transmission of knowledge and skills:

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REFLECTIONS: Instrumental vs organic view of progress

I think the thing that I need to remember the most is that “the world is open to endless possibilities and I shouldn’t falsely believe that I am locked into taking a shrinking range of possibilities, locked out of some for false reasons such as fear, bias, or force of habit.”
It’s nice to be able to just let go and do whatever comes around. It’s one of the biggest predictors of good luck, extroversion, creativity, innovation and adaptability.
There is freedom in the world, and that is what excites me – the possibilities (and thus future adventures) are endless.

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STUDY: successful initial teacher education

Successful initial teacher education relies on all partners working effectively together to create an environment where student teachers can learn effectively by observing, questioning, discussing and critically reflecting on their experiences in a structured way to allow progress.

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STUDY: Vygotskyian idea of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

As Warford (2011) state, student teachers ‘take the facts and appropriate their own meanings by means of cultural tools… This process… grows in systematicity and complexity as teacher knowledge is continually reshaped to accommodate the dynamic nature of schools and classrooms; consequently, a Vygotskyan approach to teacher development sees the education of teachers as situated learning.

Wargord sees a Vygotskian approach to ITE as involving a three way conversation between:
– Student teachers prior experiences as learners and often tacit beliefs about pedagogy
– Pedagogical content of the teacher education program
– Observations of teaching and learning in the field placements.

The three way conversation can lead to tensions, conflicts of beliefs or direct contradictions.

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STUDY: Combination of the personal and collective

Student teachers need to also be aware that the knowledge that they are developing is constructed from a combination of the ‘personal’ (their experiences) and the ‘collective’ (the literature and the professional wisdom of experienced teachers).

They need to understand the particular context they are in, how the personalities and backgrounds of the staff has informed the curriculum and pedagogy of the department and how working with different personalities and teams would lead to different approaches.

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STUDY: Behavior Management basics

Behavior Management basics are:

If you’re new to our noble profession, the basics will give you a
great foundation for the journey you’re about to take. They’re

Be definite: ‘I know what I want.’
Be aware: ‘I know what will happen if I do/don’t get what I want.’
Be calm and consistent: ‘I’m always polite and fair to you.’
Give them structure: ‘I know where we’re going.’
Be positive: ‘You’re doing great.’
Be interested: ‘You’re people as well as students.’
Be flexible: ‘I know when to bend rather than break.’
Be persistent: ‘I refuse to give up.’
Engage them: ‘I want you to want to learn.’

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